1. Resource Center Releases National Survey Data Briefs
The Data Resource Center (DRC) for Child and Adolescent Health has produced two new data briefs. One brief provides an overview of 20 specific health conditions asked about in the 2009-2010 National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs (NS-CSHCN). Another brief uses data from the 2007 National Health Interview Survey and the 2009-2010 NS-CSHCN to examine complementary and alternative medicine use and expenditures for children with emotional, mental, or behavior conditions or problems. DRC is a project of the Child and Adolescent Health Measurement Initiative supported by the Health Resources and Services Administration's Maternal and Child Health Bureau. DRC data briefs on these and other topics are available at http://childhealthdata.org/action/databriefs
2. Report Explores Mechanisms Through Which Medicaid Could Pay for Home Visiting
Medicaid Financing of Early Childhood Home Visiting Programs: Options, Opportunities, and Challenges examines how states are using -- or could use -- Medicaid to finance home visiting services. The report, published by the Pew Centers on the States and the National Academy for State Health Policy, is based on findings from a literature review and a scan of state policies and practices to identify mechanisms for supporting home visiting services through Medicaid. The report also integrates findings from an expert panel meeting on the benefits and challenges of different Medicaid funding mechanisms. Six in-depth case studies illustrate states' experience with Medicaid financing of home visiting services. The report is available at http://www.nashp.org/sites/default/files/medicaid.financing.home_.visiting.programs.pdf
3. Authors Assess HIV Testing Among Adults and Adolescents Newly Diagnosed with HIV Infection
"These results demonstrate that many persons diagnosed with HIV infection have never been tested previously," write the authors of a report published in the June 22, 2012, issue of Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. In 2006, the Centers for Disease and Control (CDC) recommended human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing for adults, adolescents, and pregnant women in health care settings and HIV testing at least annually for individuals at high risk for HIV infection to foster early detection, facilitate linkage to care, and improve health outcomes. The report describes results of a study to assess HIV testing patterns among adults and adolescents newly diagnosed with HIV infection. Understanding HIV testing patterns among individuals recently diagnosed with HIV infection can help in the design of HIV testing strategies that reduce the time between onset of HIV infection and its diagnosis.
CDC analyzed data from 18 jurisdictions participating in HIV incidence surveillance through the National HIV Surveillance System. The analysis included individuals ages 13 and older with a new diagnosis of HIV infection during the period 2006-2009. Testing history information (THI) collected for the purpose of HIV incidence surveillance and reported to CDC through January 2011 was used to determine whether individuals diagnosed with HIV infection ever had a previous negative HIV test and to calculate the time from their most recent negative HIV test to HIV diagnosis.
The authors found that
"Persons who are unaware of their HIV infection might not change their behavior to reduce the risk for transmission and will not be linked to care, resulting in worse health outcomes. Enhanced efforts are needed to increase annual HIV testing for populations at high risk for HIV infection to increase early detection," conclude the authors.
Readers: Information and resources for National HIV Testing Day (June 27, 2012), which promote strategies to detect, treat, and prevent HIV infection, are available at http://hivtest.cdc.gov/press_files/default.aspx
More information available from the following MCH Library resources:
- AIDS/HIV in Pregnancy: Bibliography of Materials from MCHLine at
4. Study Examines Maternal Smoking, Breastfeeding, and Risk of Childhood Overweight
"We found that exposure to tobacco compounds via breast milk of heavy smokers was associated with a modest elevation in childhood BMI [body mass index] and risk of overweight at 7 years of age," write the authors of an article published in the Maternal and Child Health Journal on June 20, 2012. Given the importance of breastfeeding and the fact that smoking by lactating mothers -- while decreasing -- still commonly occurs, it is critical to better understand the effects of exposure to tobacco compounds via breast milk on childhood growth (weight and length or height) and BMI. The article uses data from a large national cohort to examine the association of exposure to tobacco compounds in breast milk with childhood growth measures as well as the association of such exposure with risk for overweight. The analysis adds to the literature on the relationship between maternal smoking and breastfeeding and child growth and risk for overweight, extending follow-up time to age 7.
Data for the analyses were drawn from the Collaborative Perinatal Project (CPP), a prospective cohort study conducted at 12 sites throughout the United States. At each prenatal visit, women reported whether they currently smoked and, if they did, the number of cigarettes they smoked per day. Women were categorized as non-smokers, light smokers (1-9 cigarettes per day), moderate smokers (10-19 cigarettes per day), or heavy smokers (20 or more cigarettes per day). During the postpartum hospital stay, study examiners observed mothers’ daily feeding methods (breastfeeding, bottle-feeding, or mixed feeding). Birthweight was measured immediately after delivery, and birth length was measured within 24 hours after birth. At the age 7 follow-up, medical staff used standard protocols to measure children's weight and height. The final sample included 21,063 children with complete data on maternal smoking, feeding type, and weight and height at age 7. Overweight at age 7 was defined as a BMI at or above the 85th percentile stratified by sex and age within the CPP cohort. Covariates included family-level socioeconomic status; maternal age at pregnancy, race, marital status, parity, and prepregnancy BMI (calculated from self-reported prepregnancy weight and measured height at study enrollment); and offspring's sex and gestational age.
The authors found that
"Considering the numerous health benefits of breastfeeding to both children and mothers . . . we present our findings as further incentive for the provision of resources to help women, particularly pregnant and breastfeeding women, to quit smoking," the authors conclude.
Wen X, Shenassa ED, Paradis AD. 2012. Maternal smoking, breastfeeding, and risk of childhood overweight: Findings from a national cohort. Maternal and Child Health Journal [published online on June 20, 2012]. Abstract available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10995-012-1059-y
Readers: More information is available from the following MCH Library resources:
- Tobacco, Alcohol, Substance Use During Preconception and Pregnancy: Knowledge Path at
- Overweight and Obesity in Children and Adolescents: Knowledge Path at
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