This knowledge path directs readers to a selection of current, high-quality
resources about adolescent pregnancy prevention that measure, document,
and monitor the problem; identify risk and protective factors; and report
on promising intervention strategies. It can be used by health and social
services professionals, policymakers, and researchers to learn more about
the topic, for program development, and to locate training resources
and information to answer specific questions. Separate briefs identify
resources for families and schools. The path has been compiled by the MCH Library at Georgetown University and will be updated
The birth rate for U.S. adolescents ages 15–19 in 2012 was 29.4 per
Center for Health Statistics
down 6% from 2011, but still the highest birth rate in the Western industrialized
, 2012). Adolescent pregnancy and childbirth
have serious consequences for the adolescent mother, the child, and society
in general. For example, adolescent mothers are more likely to live in
poverty. Infants born to adolescent mothers are more likely to have lower
birthweights. And adolescent pregnancy imposes large costs on U.S. taxpayers — billions
of dollars annually — in terms of the services and support provided
to families that began with a birth to an adolescent. See Why
It Matters: Linking Teen Pregnancy Prevention to Other Critical Social
Issues, rev. ed.
(2010) by the National Campaign to
Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy
. The National Campaign also offers
of fact sheets
about the social issues impacted by adolescent pregnancy.
Also see the strategies
by the Department of Health and Human Services
to reduce adolescent and unintended pregnancy.
Resources for Professionals
- Administration for
Children and Families (ACF): Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention. Tools and resources to support state, tribal, and community efforts to promote comprehensive sex education, adulthood preparation programs, and abstinence education to
prevent adolescent pregnancy and the spread of sexually transmitted infections.
for Youth. Data, reports, lesson plans, information about effective
programs, and news and commentary about adolescent
sexual and reproductive health for health professionals, educators, and
advocates. Topics address abstinence, abortion, contraception, parent-child
communication, sexuality education, and adolescent-pregnancy prevention.
Also presents contact information for state
organizations focused on adolescent pregnancy prevention. Advocates
for Youth aims to help adolescents and young adults make informed and
responsible decisions about their reproductive and sexual health. Publications
and Success: Sex Education
and Other Programs that Work
to Prevent Teen Pregnancy,
HIV and Sexually Transmitted
Infections (2nd ed.). (2008).
Also see the Parents
Sex Ed Center, the Sex Education Resource Center,
and the Future of Sex Education (FoSE).
- Campaign for Our Children
(CFOC). Tools for public health professionals and local government
officials for developing research-based messages and educational media
campaigns about adolescent pregnancy prevention and other preventive
health issues. Includes video and audio clips and fact sheets. CFOC was
established in 1987 to address the high adolescent birth rate in Maryland.
CFOC's materials are now used nationally and internationally.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Parents Matter! Research-based
information, resources, and tools for health and social service professionals
about including parents in sexual risk prevention efforts targeting adolescents.
of Reproductive Health: Adolescent
Reproductive Health. Information
about funding programs, research,
science-based approaches, and
state and community success
stories for preventing adolescent
pregnancy, HIV, and sexually
transmitted diseases (STDs).
to Community Preventive Services: Prevention of HIV/AIDS, other STIs and
Pregnancy. Recommendations for population-based interventions that focus
on abstinence education, comprehensive risk reduction, and adolescent behavior.
National Center for Health
Statistics (NCHS). Briefs and reports with data about adolescent sexual
activity, contraception, pregnancy, and birth rates.
Also see CDC's Healthy Youth! Sexual Risk Behaviors,
the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS),
and the Prevention Research Centers.
Trends: Teen Sex and Pregnancy. Research briefs, fact sheets,
and other publications about sexual activity, contraceptive use, and
fertility to help program providers and policymakers develop strategies
for preventing unintended pregnancies, nonmarital births, and STDs. Child
Trends is a nonprofit, nonpartisan research organization providing research
and data to inform decision-making that affects families. Also see the Child Trends DataBank and the LINKS
- Guttmacher Institute.
Fact sheets, policy briefs, reports, articles, PowerPoint presentations,
and news about adolescent sexuality, abortion, contraception, and pregnancy
prevention. Some materials are available in Spanish and French. Also presents
a state center for research
and analysis about sexual and reproductive health laws and policy developments
in the states. The Guttmacher Institute focuses on sexual and reproductive
health research, policy analysis, and public education worldwide. Also see the Guttmacher Institute Data Center.
- Healthy People 2020. Information about this national health-promotion and disease-prevention initiative of the Department of Health and Human Services. View the overview, objectives, and recommended interventions and resources for adolescent health, including adolescent pregnancy prevention.
- Healthy Teen Network (HTN).
Reports, resource guides, fact sheets, webinars, and a conference calendar
about adolescent pregnancy prevention, adolescent pregnancy, and adolescent
parenting. HTN is a national member-based organization of adolescent reproductive
health professionals. Resources include
Resource Center. Information
and tools to help communities
implement evidence-based or
innovative approaches to reducing
- National Adolescent and Young Adult Health Information Center (NAHIC). Fact sheets, policy briefs, reports, and other
materials about adolescent health on topics that include positive adolescent
development and reproductive health. NAHIC is based at the University
of California, San Francisco.
- National Alliance to Advance
Adolescent Health. Fact sheets, issue briefs, reports, and
journal article citations about health care topics important to adolescents,
such as health insurance and access to care; development of adolescent-friendly,
interdisciplinary models of care; and assurance of confidential care.
The alliance provides education, research, policy analysis, and technical
assistance to support improvements in the way that adolescent health
care is structured and financed.
Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy. An extensive
set of resources about adolescent pregnancy prevention for health and
education professionals, policymakers, faith communities, parents, adolescents,
and the media. Resources include national data and state
data; information about effective programs;
sheets; PowerPoint presentations; Spanish-language materials; posters;
audiovisuals; and news and commentary. Topics
include contraception, foster care, male involvement, parental involvement,
the influence of media on adolescent sexual health, health reform, racial
and ethnic differences, and faith and values. The National Campaign is
a nonprofit, nonpartisan initiative that aims to improve the well-being
of children, adolescents, families, and the nation by preventing unplanned
and adolescent pregnancy. A selection of publications
and initiatives includes
Answers: Research Findings
on Programs to Reduce Teen
Pregnancy and Sexually Transmitted
Diseases. (2007). [Report].
Funding for Teen Pregnancy
Prevention Programs. Information
about federal funding opportunities
to support evidence-based adolescent
pregnancy prevention programs.
Includes background data and
facts for proposal writing.
Day to Prevent Teen Pregnancy.
A collection of resources for
this annual event, which occurs
on the first Wednesday in May.
What Works to Work (PWWTW).
Reports, research briefs, case
studies, and presentations
about this project to translate
research on adolescent pregnancy
prevention practices into user-friendly
materials for professionals,
policymakers, and advocates
to incorporate into their work.
Works 2011-2012: Curriculum-Based
Programs That Help Prevent Teen
Pregnancy. (2012). [Research
of Adolescent Health (OAH): Teen Pregnancy Prevention. Information
about a federal initiative to support evidence-based adolescent pregnancy
prevention approaches. Includes grant announcements, application forms,
and technical assistance information. Also includes information about
the systematic review of the evidence base for programs to prevent adolescent
pregnancy and information about interventions meeting the review's criteria
for programs with evidence of effectiveness. OAH is part of the Department
of Health and Human Services (DHHS).
- Office of Population
Affairs (OPA). Information about family planning and adolescent
family life grant programs. Includes program reports, data, evaluation
instruments, lists of grantees, a reproductive
health clinic directory, and a publications list. OPA is part of
the Department of Health and Human Services
Practices Network (PPN) on Children, Families, and Communities.
Information about programs and practices that research indicates are
effective in improving outcomes for children, adolescents, and families,
including programs that increase the percentage of adolescents who abstain
from sexual activity or do not engage in risky sexual behavior. Also
contains resources for strengthening service delivery. PPN is operated
by the RAND Corporation.
- Resource Center
for Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention (ReCAPP). Tools and information
for teachers and health educators on reducing sexual risk-taking behaviors
among adolescents. Includes information about programs that have shown
evidence of changing sexual risk-taking behavior; strategies for educators
and adolescents for effective prevention; learning activities that teachers
and health educators can use with adolescents; rationales behind the
development of adolescent pregnancy prevention strategies, activities,
and programs; statistics; abstracts of current research; and access to
ReCAPP's library. ReCAPP was created by ETR,
a private, nonprofit health-education-promotion organization.
- Sexuality Information
and Education Council of the U.S. (SIECUS). Resources about human
sexuality and adolescent development that include program information;
policy, advocacy, and research updates; and advocacy and education tools.
SIECUS is a national, nonprofit organization that provides education
and information about sexuality and sexual and reproductive health.
Also see SIECUS' Talk
About Sex, SexEdLibrary, and Future
of Sex Education (FoSE).
- Society for Adolescent Health
and Medicine (SAHM). Position
papers on topics that include abstinence-only education policies
and programs, confidential health care for adolescents, emergency contraception,
media and contraception, and reproductive health care for adolescents.
Also offers an online
directory of adolescent health professionals.
Corporation. Adolescent-pregnancy data, information about effective
prevention programs, and evaluation resources for program administrators
from health clinics, schools, and community-based organizations. Resources
include the Data Archive on Adolescent Pregnancy and
Pregnancy Prevention (DAAPPP) and journal articles about its development
and use. Also includes the Program
Archive on Sexuality, Health, and Adolescence (PASHA), a collection
of effective adolescent pregnancy, sexually transmitted disease (STD),
and HIV/AIDS prevention programs selected for public dissemination by
a national panel of experts. Replication kits for each of these programs
are available. Publications and online professional training in program
modeling and evaluation are also presented. Sociometrics is a research
and development firm specializing in social science research applications.
Additional Electronic Resources
- Adolescent Pregnancy
Prevention Campaign of North Carolina (APPCNC). 2009. BrdsNBz
Text Message Warm Line. Durham, NC: Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention
Campaign of North Carolina (APPCNC). [Information page].
- Association of Maternal and Child Health
Programs (AMCHP). 2010. Adolescent
Health and Teen Pregnancy. Washington, DC: Association of Maternal
and Child Health Programs (AMCHP). [Newsletter issue].
- Association of Maternal and Child Health
Programs (AMCHP). 2010. Making
the Case: A Comprehensive Systems Approach for Adolescent Health and Well-Being.
Washington, DC: Association of Maternal and Child Health Programs (AMCHP). [White paper].
- Bixby Center for Global Reproductive
Health, Center on Social Disparities in Health. 2008. A
Question of Hope: Reducing Latina Teen Childbearing in California.
Berkeley, California: Ideas in Motion. [Video clip]. Also available in Spanish.
- Butler AS, Clayton EW, eds. 2009. A
Review of the HHS Family Planning Program: Mission, Management, and Measurement
of Results. Washington, DC: National Academies
- Evans D. 2009. Recommended
Adolescent Health Care Utilization: How Social Marketing Can Help.
Washington, DC: National Institute for Health
Care Management Research and Educational Foundation. [Issue brief].
- Futures Without Violence.
on Adolescent Pregnancy, Reproductive Risk and Exposure to Dating and Family
Violence. San Francisco, CA: Futures Without Violence. [Fact
- Lawrence RS, Gootman JA, Sim LJ, eds. 2008. Adolescent
Health Services: Missing Opportunities. Washington, DC: National
Academies Press. [Report].
- Monasterio E, Combs N, Warner L, Larsen-Fleming M, St. Andrews A. 2010. Sexual
Health: An Adolescent Provider Toolkit. San Francisco, CA: Adolescent
Health Working Group, San Francisco. [Toolkit].
- National Clearinghouse on Families and Youth
(NCFY). 2010. Bright
Idea: Texting for Teen Health. Silver Spring, MD: National Clearinghouse
on Families and Youth (NCFY). This article describes lessons learned from
a North Carolina adolescent pregnancy prevention campaign that
invites adolescents to ask questions about sexual health via anonymous
- National Conference of State Legislatures
(NCSL). 2009. Building
on Success: Teen Pregnancy Prevention in California. Denver, CO: National
Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL). [Meeting materials].
- National Conference of State Legislatures
(NCSL). 2009. Teen
Pregnancy Prevention: Making a Difference for At-Risk Populations.
Denver, CO: National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL). [Issue
- Schwarz SW. 2010. Adolescent
Reproductive and Sexual Health: Facts for Policymakers. New York, NY: National
Center for Children in Poverty (NCCP). [Fact sheet].
- Trenholm C, Devaney B, Fortson K, Quay L, Wheeler J, Clark M. 2007. Impacts
of Four Title V, Section 510 Abstinence Education Programs: Final Report.
Princeton, NJ: Mathematica Policy
Research, Inc. [Report].
See the following set of MCH Library resource briefs to identify additional data and statistics, literature and research, and programs about adolescent pregnancy prevention.
News and Commentary
for Youth. Several blogs about adolescent reproductive and sexual
health policy, culture, current events and research, and parent-child
communication. Also offers Daily News, a list of headlines with links
to articles about adolescent reproductive and sexual health.
Institute E-mail Updates. Three electronic newsletters about
sexual and reproductive health news and analysis: (1) Guttmacher Update,
(2) State News Quarterly, and (3) News Providers Can Use from the Guttmacher
Association of County and City Health Officials (NACCHO): Adolescent
Health Update. An electronic newsletter about adolescent
health resources, conferences, funding opportunities, and news for professionals
working in local health departments. Topics include adolescent pregnancy
Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy. The blog, Pregnant
Pause, about adolescent and unplanned pregnancy and Notification
Network, an e-mail news service that covers adolescent pregnancy
prevention facts, data, research, publications, program information,
and media messages.
Resources for Families
Resources for Schools
Related MCH Library Resources
Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention: Knowledge Path, 6th ed. (September 2010). (Updated:
Author: Susan Brune Lorenzo, M.L.S., MCH Library.
Reviewers: Olivia K. Pickett, M.A., M.L.S., MCH Library;
Katherine Suellentrop, M.P.H., The National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned
Editor: Ruth Barzel, M.A., MCH Library.